Tick-borne Lyme disease is anticipated to affect more than 14% of the world’s population.

According to a pooled data analysis of the available evidence published in the open-access journal BMJ Global Health, over 14% of people globally have or have had tick-borne Lyme disease, as shown by the presence of antibodies in the blood.

The largest recorded frequency of the virus is seen in Central and Western Europe and Eastern Asia, with men aged 50 and up living in rural areas being the most vulnerable, according to the study.

Lyme disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bb) infection, which is the most prevalent tick-borne infection. Ticks are second only to mosquitoes in terms of carrying hazardous microorganisms.

The infecting agent can spread to other tissues and organs, potentially affecting the nervous system, joints, heart, and skin. Redness and swelling at the site of the tick bite are common, but the infecting agent can spread to other tissues and organs, potentially affecting the nervous system, joints, heart, and skin.

Lyme disease has continued to spread throughout the world, but no one knows how widespread it is or what the individual risk factors are.

The study authors searched major research databases and reviewed 137 appropriate articles out of a total of 4196 published up through the end of 2021 in an attempt to fill this knowledge gap. They then combined data from 89 trials with a total of 158,287 participants.

The estimated overall global seroprevalence—the presence of antibodies to Bb infection in the blood—was 14.5 percent, according to the pooled data analysis.

Central Europe (21%) was the region with the greatest reported seroprevalence, followed by Eastern Asia (16%) and Western Europe (16%). (13.5 percent ). The Caribbean (2%), Southern Asia (3%), and Oceania (3%), on the other hand, had the lowest recorded seroprevalence (nearly 5.5 percent ).

However, the pooled Bb seroprevalence reported in research employing Western blotting, a commonly used analytical approach for confirming the presence of particular proteins, was lower than that reported in studies using alternative confirmatory methods.

The authors believe that systematic use of Western blotting could greatly increase the accuracy of Bb antibody detection in light of this finding.

A smaller pooled study of the results of 58 studies that used Western blotting found that being older (50+), male, living in a rural region, and being bitten by a tick were all linked to a higher likelihood of Bb antibodies.

According to the researchers’ findings, there were more cases of Bb in 2010–2021 than there were in 2001–2010.

Ecological changes and factors such as longer summers and warmer winters, lesser rainfall, animal migration, fragmentation of arable land, and more time spent outside with pets are all possible explanations, scientists believe.

The authors of the study acknowledge that their findings have some limitations, the most significant of which is the lack of long-term investigations. Furthermore, it was impossible to determine whether Bb antibody-positive had any long-term impact on the probability of getting Lyme disease or recurrence.

The studies included in the review included a wide range of designs, and most of the papers omitted crucial information, such as precise classifications of high-risk categories.

The authors of the study, however, come to the following conclusion: “Global Bb seropositivity is projected to be relatively high.

[Lyme disease] is a widely spread infectious disease that has garnered little worldwide attention.”

They believe that a better understanding of the disease’s global spread and who is most at risk of infection “may inform the creation of public health response plans and [Lyme disease] control efforts.”

Lyme disease symptoms or Chronic Lyme disease symptoms:

Fever, headaches, exhaustion, and the distinctive skin rash known as erythema migrans are typical symptoms. Lyme disease is identified based on symptoms, physical signs (such as a rash), and the potential for tick exposure.

Lyme disease treatment:

Antibiotics. oral antibiotics These are the recommended treatments for Lyme disease in its early stages. These often include doxycycline for adults and kids older than 8 and amoxicillin or cefuroxime for adults, younger kids, pregnant women, or nursing mothers.

What is Lyme disease in humans?

Following are the Lyme disease causes:

The bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and, less frequently, Borrelia mayonii are responsible for Lyme disease. Through the bite of infected black-legged ticks, it is transferred to people. Fever, headaches, exhaustion, and the distinctive skin rash known as erythema migrans are typical symptoms.

Can Lyme disease be cured?

Despite the fact that the majority of instances of Lyme disease may be healed with a 2- to 4-week course of oral antibiotics, patients can occasionally experience pain, exhaustion, or trouble thinking for more than 6 months after finishing therapy. The term “Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome” refers to this illness (PTLDS).

Lyme disease rash:

Lyme disease signs and symptoms
Some patients may get a circular or oval rash around a tick bite as their first sign of Lyme illness. The rash often emerges between one and four weeks after being bitten by an infected tick, although it can take up to three months to manifest. It might continue for a few weeks.

Lyme disease test:

ELISA test, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay The test that is used to diagnose Lyme disease most frequently, although it is not the only one because it occasionally yields false-positive findings.

Lyme disease in dogs

Blacklegged ticks, which may spread the pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi, may bite dogs and cause Lyme disease. When sick, dogs may experience fever and lameness in one or more joints. They may also appear lethargic, and their lymph nodes may enlarge.

Lyme disease in dogs: 5 things pet owners should know |  boehringer-ingelheim.us

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Lyme disease in dogs treatment

Dogs with Lyme disease are routinely treated with an antibiotic treatment lasting four weeks or longer (the antibiotic Doxycycline is typically the first-choice option). Your dog’s veterinarian may also recommend anti-inflammatory medication to aid with joint pain if your dog appears to be in a lot of pain.

What are the 3 stages of Lyme disease in dogs?

  • Localized: A few days after the tick bite, this stage takes place.
  • Disseminated: Within a few weeks of a tick bite, this stage takes place. 
  • Persistent: Years to months following the original tick bite are possible for a late infection to develop.

Disseminated: Within a few weeks of a tick bite, this stage takes place. Persistent: Years to months following the original tick bite are possible for a late infection to develop.

 

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Author: Muhammad Asim

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